Letter from London



過去の芸術家から学ぶこと(English)

 近日、私は日本の音楽大学の学生に講義をする予定があります。講義の内容は過去の名ピアニストを紹介することです。この講義で使う予定のレコードの中には、古くて1903年から1906年にさかのぼるものもあります。私の目的は、まず学生達にこれらの珍しいレコードを聴かせ、それから何を学べるかを指摘することです。

 それは、ただ名ピアニストの真似をすればよいという事ではありません。実際に音楽家や学生はよくCDを聴きますが、レッスン時に教師が生徒にあるレコードや教師の演奏を真似るように指導するということはまずありません。むしろ生徒は模倣することよりも、自分とプロの演奏を比較し、何故どちらかの方が優れているかを理解した上でその作品の音楽的解釈と演奏技術を向上するべきです。

 一方、日本伝統芸能の教授法は、まず師匠を出来る限り正確に模擬することに始まります。しかしながら、最終目的は西洋音楽と同じです。西洋音楽家は学習と知識と経験を積み重ねた上で、独自の解釈に至るべきです。同じように、日本伝統芸能家は師匠の流儀を長い年月を経て「自分のもの」にしていきます。

 最近まで、歌舞伎俳優は父や伯父、または先輩から直接教えを受けなければ役柄を学ぶことは出来ませんでした。歌舞伎400年の歴史を振り返えれば、これが旧来で正しい伝授法であると言えると思います。ビデオや(最近になっては)DVDが普及するにつれて、若手俳優さんや歌舞伎ファンは、物故名優たちの演技を観たり現代の歌舞伎俳優と比較することができます。

 私はまだ老齢ではないつもりですが、歌舞伎座の三階の廊下に掛かっている物故名優写真が恐ろしい速さで増えているような気がします。実のところ、私は最近の襲名ニュースに追いつくのが精一杯です。歌舞伎俳優の名前を聞く度にまず彼らの父親が思い浮かんでしまいます。中村勘三郎さんや片岡仁左衛門さんのようなすばらしい歌舞伎俳優さんたちには申し訳ないのですが、自分が若い頃賞賛した俳優さんの印象が強いのは私だけではないと思います。

 さて私の講義の話に戻りますが、資料を集める段階で久々に聴いたホロヴィッツ、リヒテル、ミケランジェリ(写真下)や(五十歳の若さで悲劇的に亡くなってしまった)グールド、といった過去の名ピアニストのレコードは私にとって非常に刺激的でした。

アルトゥーロ・ベネデッティ・ミケランジェリ

 私の称賛の的は彼らだけではありません。それは私が初めて歌舞伎を観て深い関心を抱いた1980年代の名優たちです。例えば、三代目實川延若さんの『操三番叟』は無二ですし、先月の手紙で触れた二代目中村鴈治郎さんの『沼津』と十七代目中村勘三郎さんの『勧進帳』の富樫や『俊寛』、そして、私が名ピアニストと同じくらい敬服する六代目中村歌右衛門さんです。


 新橋演舞場での歌右衛門さんの『伽羅先代萩』の政岡と『籠釣瓶花街酔醒』の傾城八ツ橋はよく覚えています。その時、私が歌舞伎を観たのはまだ二回目でしたが、八ツ橋が次郎左衛門に背を向けて部屋から出て行く有名な「縁切り」の場を忘れることができません。名優は後姿だけでも多くを表現できるものです。


 また、もうひとつの私の思い出は『女暫』の後半で勘三郎さんが演じた舞台番です。これは私が今まで見た歌舞伎の中で、一番愉快でした。ユーモアがあっただけではありません。名優たちの絶妙で完璧な間の取り方は、私が今まで観たあらゆる芸術の中で最も優れています。まさに芸術の極致です。幸いなことに私は当時、日本に在住していたのでこのような名場面をテレビで録画することができましたが、是非ともNHKと松竹にこれらのDVD製作をしてもらいたいものです。

 私たちが物故演奏家や名優から学ぶ事は沢山あります。それがミケランジェリからであっても、歌右衛門さんからであっても、彼らの偉業を今日味わえるのはとても幸せなことですよね。


■ロナルド・カヴァイエ
 コンサートピアニストとしてロンドン、ハノーバー、ブダペストで学んだ後、1979~1986年、武蔵野音大にて教鞭をとる。現在はロンドンに住み、年に数回、コンサート、授業、講演などで来日している。

 最初に歌舞伎を見たのは1979年。1982年には最初の英語イヤホンガイドの解説者になる。音楽教育と歌舞伎に関する著書があり、1993年に「Kabuki - A Pocket Guide」(Charles E. Tuttle)を日米で、2004年には「A Guide to the Japanese Stage」(講談社インターナショナル)をポール・グリフィス、扇田 昭彦との共著として出版した。

 2002年には、鈴ヶ森を「Kabuki Plays on Stage Vol. III - Darkness and Desire」(University of Hawai'i Press)へと翻訳し、昨年は松竹とNHKが制作する歌舞伎DVDの新シリーズの解説、字幕制作をおこなった。

"Learning from the Past"

 I have recently been working on a lecture about great pianists of the Twentieth Century. I intend to introduce young Japanese music students to some of the great pianists of the past. Some of the recordings I shall be playing in the lecture were made as early as 1903 and 1906 - a hundred years ago - and my purpose is first to let the students hear these rare recordings and also to point out what we can learn from them today.

 This is not simply a matter of trying to imitate the way a famous pianist plays. In fact, although both professional musicians and students often listen to CDs, during a lesson there is no attempt by the teacher to get the student simply to copy what they have heard - either from a CD or from the teacher who might himself play by way of demonstration. Rather than imitation, the student should compare the professional's playing with his own, decide which is superior and why, and hopefully make changes for the better in both technique and interpretation.

 In the early stages, at least, the Japanese way of teaching traditional arts does, however, seem to be based more on imitation by following the teacher's demonstration as exactly as possible. Both methods, however, have the same end in view. The Western musician must arrive at an interpretation of a piece of music as a result of study, knowledge and experience. The Japanese musician (or dancer or actor) arrives over the course of time, at a similar result by repeating his teacher's way until he himself feels the "rightness" of that way and gradually makes it his own.

 Until fairly recently the only way for a Kabuki actor to study a role was to learn it directly from a father or uncle or perhaps from another senior actor. This remains the traditional way of learning and, over the course of Kabuki's 400 year history, I have to say that this method has been extremely successful.
The advent of the video and, more recently, the DVD, however, both enables young actors to see past performances and also we Kabuki fans to watch and compare actors who are no longer with us with those of today.

I'm not that old but already, in the corridor of the third floor of the Kabuki-za, the number of photographs of deceased actors whom I have seen is increasing alarmingly! In fact, I'm starting to find it difficult to keep up with the new shûmei! I feel I must apologise to the wonderful actors Kanzaburô and Nizaemon, for example, but whenever I hear those names, I still automatically think of their fathers! I don't think I'm unique in this and I suppose it's natural for people to remember with affection the artists they saw and admired when they were younger.

 Getting back to my lecture, I have been thrilled, as I prepared it, listening again to the great pianists of the past like Vladimir Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli and the amazing Glenn Gould who tragically died at the early age of just 50!

Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli

But I have other heroes too - the actors whom I saw and admired during the 1980s when I first became deeply involved in Kabuki. I'm thinking of Enjaku III, for example, who's Ayatsuri Sanbasô is unequalled, Ganjirô II's marvellous Numazu, which I wrote about last month, Kanzaburô XVII's marvellous Togashi or Shunkan and, of course, my own personal favourite, the actor for whom I have an admiration and affection equalling those great pianists whom I love - Nakamura Utaemon VI.  


 I remember his Masaoka at the Kabuki-za, of course, and Yatsuhashi at the Shinbashi Embujô. That was only the second time I saw Kabuki but I will never forget the famous rejection scene - 縁切り- when Yatsuhashi turns her back on Jirôzaemon and walks out of the room. A great actor can also convey so much with his back turned towards the audience! This is a woodblock print by Ôta Gakô, published in 1954, depicting Utaemon in this role. The play is, of course, Kagotsurube Sato no Eizame, performed at the Kabuki-za.


 But perhaps my most cherished memory is the end of Onna Shibaraku with Kanzaburô in the role of stage manager - 舞台番. Their performance was one of the funniest things I have ever seen in Kabuki. But there was more than just humour! Their interaction and the sense of comic timing between them was so subtle and perfect that I think of their performance as one of the highest artistic achievements I have ever seen - in any medium and in any art. It's perfection! I'm lucky enough to have recorded it on video when I was living in Tokyo. I do wish that NHK and Shochiku would put it out on DVD!

Here is an early performance of Onna Shibaraku with Segawa Rokô IV as Tomoe Gozen. The woodblock print is by Toyokuni I, and it was published for the kaomise at the Nakamura-za in the 11th month , 1807.

 There is so much to be learned from musicians and actors of the past. Michelangeli or Utaemon - it doesn't really matter. Let's just be thankful that we can still enjoy their performances.

Ronald Cavaye will be sending another letter next month.

Ronald Cavaye

   Ronald Cavaye is a concert pianist who studied in London, Hannover and Budapest. He was professor of piano at the Musashino Academy of Music in Tokyo between 1979-1986. Now living in London, he returns to Japan several times a year for concerts, teaching and lectures.

   Ronald Cavaye first saw a Kabuki play in 1979 and in 1982 became one of the first narrators (kaisetsusha) of the English Earphone Guide. He has written books on music education and Kabuki - "Kabuki - A Pocket Guide": Charles E. Tuttle, USA and Japan, 1993 and "A Guide to the Japanese Stage": (with Paul Griffith and Akihiko Senda), Kodansha International, Japan, 2004.

   He translated Suzugamori for "Kabuki Plays on Stage Vol. III - Darkness and Desire": University of Hawai'i Press, 2002 and for the past year has been working on the commentaries and subtitles of the new series of Kabuki DVDs being produced by Shochiku and NHK.